来自 文史 2018-11-22 15:36 的文章

新时代下劳动法利益格局的精妙微调及多元互动路径探讨

  摘要:习近平总书记在党的十九大报告中指出:“中国特色社会主义进入新时代, 我国社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾”。在劳动法实施当中, 劳动者对权益保护需求提升与制度供给跟不上之间的矛盾正日渐凸显。在新时代背景下劳动法实施困境实则源于对政府单边供给模式的墨守、对蕴藏在劳动关系中多元主体互动的忽视。我国劳动力市场主体利益多元化已经成为现实, 其中固然有对抗劳动法的阻滞力量, 但也不乏践行劳动法的积极力量。执法者当下之要务把握新时代劳动关系的新特点, 通过对时下劳动法利益格局进行精妙微调, 借助多元互动来落实劳动法。

  关键词:新时代; 劳动法; 实施; 劳动关系; 多元互动;

劳动法

  Multi-tier Approach of Implementing Labor Law in the New Era

  YAN Dong

  Law School, Beijing Foreign University

  Abstract:

  Xi Jinping-General Secretary of the CPC-has pointed out in 19 th CPC National Congress: “as socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, what we now face is the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people ' s ever-growing needs for a better life. ” Within similar vein, the contradiction between the workers ' growing needs for better protection of rights and interests and the insufficient supplies of institutional mechanism in the field of labor law implementation. The author believes it is the overemphasis on government ' s unilateral enforcement and ignorance of the interaction amongst multiple players within labor relations that causes the dilemma of implementing labor law in the New Era. Indeed, the interests of the labor market players has become persified, which, of course, contains resistance against labor law and at same time includes the positive force for protecting labor rights. Law and enforcement agents ought to grasp the new character of the labor relation in the New Era and take the advantage of the interaction of multiple players through subtle alteration of labor interests framework to implement labor law.

  Keyword:

  new era; labor relation; law enforcement; labor law; multiple interaction;

  引言

  我国自上个世纪90年代颁布了《工会法》和《劳动法》之后, 又陆续出台了多部劳动方面的法律, 对广大劳动者的权益诉求做出了全面的回应 (1) 。然而, 这些承载劳动者基本权益法规在具体实施方面却表现的不尽人意。究其原因, 传统市场经济理论专注劳、资、政三方之维系与互动, 而忽略了新时代当中的新变化。当劳资两方无法充分发挥积极效用的时候, 实施劳动法之难就可想而知了。似乎主要推动主体唯有政府, 采取方法也集中在了“重典治乱”这一传统模式, 来加大对企业违法行为惩罚力度, 严厉整治地方政府的不作为行为。这一治理思路的最终落脚点就是依靠政府的单边监管来落实劳动法, 从而与企业的逐利行为和所谓的市场“价值规律缺陷”进行抗衡。事实上, 现有的方式在某种程度上忽略了新时代劳动关系的多元化利益结构, 既无法找准突破口, 又没能取得全方位的支持。故而, 劳动法在实际操作中被技术性地虚化和弱化, 实施效果动辄得咎, 无法为广大劳动者提供洞察秋毫、锱铢必较式的保护。