来自 文史 2018-11-22 15:36 的文章

中美南海航行自由相关法律问题研究

  摘要:近年来美国蓄意将“航行自由”纳入南海问题的核心议题, 致使中美之间围绕南海航行自由的争议日益凸显。这主要源于《联合国海洋法公约》条款的模糊不清以及由此引起的具体解释的两相分歧。该争议所涉及的焦点法律问题集中体现在:外国军用船舶无害通过领海是否需要事先通知或者许可的问题;外国军用船舶和飞机在专属经济区内是否具有进行军事活动的自由权问题;沿岸国对毗连区内的航行是否具有安全管辖权, 以及防空识别区内对于仅在国际空域而不进入领空的飞行能否进行安全管制的问题。中国需要将法律路径与政治路径纳入宏观战略视野之下进行统筹规划, 才能有效应对与美国之间有关南海航行自由的争议。

  关键词:航行自由; 南海问题; 联合国海洋法公约; 焦点法律问题; 中美关系;

  Abstract:In recent years, the United States deliberately incorporated“freedom of navigation”into the core issues of the South China Sea dispute, thus the dispute between China and the United States on the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea has become increasingly prominent.This is mainly due to the ambiguity of the provision of the Convention and the disagreement of the specific interpretations.The focal legal issues involved in the dispute are as follows:Whether foreign military vessels need to notify in advance or be permitted before inoffensively passing through the territorial sea;Whether foreign military vessels and aircrafts have the freedom of military activities in the exclusive economic zone;Whether the coastal states have security jurisdiction over navigation in the adjacent sea, and whether they can carry out security control in the air defense identification zone over the flight that is only in international airspace without entering the territorial airspace.China needs to carry out overall planning the legal and political paths into the macro-strategic vision to effectively settle the dispute with the U-nited States over the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea.

  Keyword:Freedom of Navigation; South China Sea Dispute; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Focal Legal Issues; Sino-US Relations;

  一中美南海航行自由争议及其法律焦点

  作为一个典型的海洋国家, 美国自建国以来一直都把维护海洋自由视为其重要的国家利益, 甚至不惜在关键时刻为之诉诸战争。美国独立后制定的第一个用于指导对外关系的重要文件《1776年条约计划》, 就完整贯彻了海洋航行自由的精神。1918年伍德罗·威尔逊总统发表着名的“十四点计划”演说时, 曾强调美国参与一战的一个重要原则, 是“维护绝对的海上航行自由”。1941年 (美国加入二战前三个月) 富兰克林·罗斯福总统在第十三次“炉边谈话”中, 也曾宣称“我们在海上和空中巡逻”的目的, 是“为了维护美国的海洋自由政策”。历史表明, 美国在维护海洋自由方面的国家利益和政策具有长期性和全球性 (1) 。